The FODMAP content of spelt. Is spelt low FODMAP?

(Updated 2017) by Lee Martin MSc RD

The FODMAP content of spelt. Is spelt low FODMAP? products still seems to confuse people when following the low FODMAP diet. I have met many people with IBS who often report they can consume spelt without experiencing symptoms. So is spelt low FODMAP? Well yes and no is the short answer as it depends where in the world you get your spelt bread from, how much you eat, the percentage of spelt flour used and most importantly whether it was baked using the sourdough process.

When I originally (back in 2014) asked Dr Jane Muir who works at Monash University about spelt she said “We recommend sourdough spelt bread -the sourdough process will reduce fructans and is essential”. In fact in 2015 Monash published an article on spelt and FODMAPs where they said ‘It is thought that during the long fermentation period the fermenting microorganisms such as the lactobacilli will use the FODMAPs in the spelt flour‘.

So there you have it the sourdough process actually lowers the fructan content in spelt making the breads low FODMAP.  At the FODMAP research team at King’s we actually recommend 100% sourdough spelt bread as a suitable low FODMAP option. However actually finding this bread product in the UK is the challenge! I have only seen 100% sourdough spelt bread in Waitrose e.g. here or artisan bakers.

The FODMAP content of spelt. Is spelt low FODMAP?

Portion Sizes of sourdough spelt bread

Large portion sizes of sourdough spelt bread may still have moderate amounts of fructans however. The Monash low FODMAP app in 2014 stated that 3 slices  of sourdough spelt bread (when each slice weighs 26g) contains moderate amounts of GOS (galacto-oligosaccharides) and fuctans – both oligosaccharides. In their 2017 version however they have removed this portion size and the app only shows 2 slices (52g) of sourdough spelt bread as low FODMAP.

It’s interesting that the sourdough spelt bread Monash tested contains GOS as this is usually found in legumes. Perhaps the bread tested contained soya flour and the Monash app does mention to choose sourdough spelt bread with a high spelt percentage. In fact if you look at the previously published data on the FODMAP content of spelt flour below, which I extracted from the Monash paper “Biesiekiersk et al 2011 Quantification of fructans, galacto-oligosacharides and other short-chain carbohydrates in processed grains and cereals“, you will see that 100% spelt flour contains only trace GOS in the form of raffinose while the 25% spelt flour contains 0.26g/100g of GOS in the form of raffinose.

Table: Spelt FODMAP Content The FODMAP content of spelt. Is spelt low FODMAP?

I will assume the lower total fructan content is also because of the different grains used in the 25% spelt flour for which the blend of flours must have contained low levels of fructans. By the way just in case you were interested the total fructan content of wheat bread in this study was 0.68g/100g of GOS. I know this doesn’t sound like much but this makes it high FODMAP. So although spelt is naturally lower in fructans than wheat it still contains a certain degree of FODMAPs – mainly fructans if it is 100% spelt flour.

The FODMAP content of spelt. Is spelt low FODMAP?

Different FODMAPs found in sourdough spelt bread from around the world

A word of warning for spelt lovers in the rest of the world, your local spelt flours can have differences in thier FODMAP content. The Monash researchers mention in their 2011 paper linked above that “It should be noted that all products used in the present study were sampled in Australia, and that food products from other countries may yield different results”

In the 2017 version of the Monash low FODMAP app sourdough spelt bread from the USA actually contained moderate amounts of fructose in one slice (36g) and high amounts of fructose in 2 slices (72g). As outlined above original analyses of the FODMAP content of spelt did not find any fructose so why is there fructose in the USA spet breads? Personally I think it may be due to added ingredients in the spelt bread rather than spelt actually containing fructose. The American food industry does tend to use a lot of fructose in products after all. To back up my assumption when 100% sourdough spelt bread from the USA was analysed it was found to be low FODMAP at 2 slices (82g) while >3 slices contained high amounts of fructans (but not GOS).

Organic sourdough spelt bread from The Netherlands was also analysed and found similar concentrations of FODMAPs to the USA 100% spelt bread and the Australian sourdough spelt bread. In that 2 slices (70g) was low FODMAP while >4 slices (140g) was high in fructans. Interestingly however in The Netherlands spelt bread that was not baked using the sourdough process also had low levels of FODMAPs at 2 slices (70g) and was found to have fructans at 3 slices.

Therefore it seems the FODMAP content of spelt can be different in different countries. So the spelt bread you buy locally may have lower or high concentrations of FODMAPs compared to what the Monash app tells you. It is therefore worth remembering if you are consuming spelt breads and your symptoms are under control then you may have found a suitable spelt bread for you. Everyone’s tolerance levels to FODMAPs will be different and slight changes in the FODMAP content of the spelt bread you eat may make all the difference.

SPELTGROUPIMAGE

In general when consuming spelt bread just remember these rules:

  • Choose 100% sourdough spelt bread. This is most likely to be low in FODMAPs.

  • Or choose sourdough spelt bread with a high % of spelt flour.

  • Or at the very least least 100% spelt bread that has not been baked using the sourdough process.

  • Do not eat more than 3 slices in one sitting! This is likely to be high in fructans.


Good news! The first ever book dedicated to reintroducing FODMAPs is now available to purchase on Amazon. The book is titled ‘Re-challenging and Reintroducing FODMAPs – A self-help guide to the entire reintroduction phase of the low FODMAP diet’. Click on the logo for more details.

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Want more information on the low FODMAP diet and IBS / functional bowel disorders? You had better click here. Or for dietitian approved low FODMAP recipes see here.

We recently travelled around the world and blogged about following a modified FODMAP diet. See more on our FODMAP blog Travel section.

Skype consultations half price We offer reduced rates for Skype consultations anywhere in the world. For more information and for contacting R&M Dietetic you can enquire here or email info@rmdietetic.com

 


 


9 thoughts on “The FODMAP content of spelt. Is spelt low FODMAP?

  1. Reblogged this on Not From A Packet Mix and commented:
    A thorough write-up on spelt flour. It’s a common misconception (and one that I fell prey to at the start of 2014) that spelt flour is low FODMAP.

    As the Two Dietitians explain, it is lower in fructans than wheat but only proper sourdough is truly low FODMAP in 2-3 slice servings. Read their entire post for the complete details.

  2. Thanks for doing all the research on this… I’ve seen the mixed messages regarding spelt…. I have a dairy and egg intolerance in addition to following a fodmap diet, so don’t have many grocery options…. I’m cautiously optimistic about trying a spelt sourdough…. thanks again for the info!

  3. Pingback: Spelt -
  4. I just found this post; it’s helpful in explaining what I’ve noticed in experimenting with making my own sourdough breads. I use mostly spelt, but I’ve found that I can use other flours like rye and einkorn and regular wheat in lesser proportions. I also often balance spelt and rye with a.certain amount of cooked rice, polenta, or potato in the dough in order to reduce the fructans in a serving portion.

    Thank you for your straightforward explanations. I’m now looking forward tousing your book on challenging and reintroducing fodmaps. It seems to be a clear and systematic approach.

    1. Hi Gigi, many thanks for your kind comments I really hope you enjoy my book and find it very practical. Sounds like you are getting to grips already with modifying your diet so you can consume high FODMAP foods along side low FODMAP foods to control your symptoms. This is the hardest part of the low FODMAP diet so great work!

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